Concrete pouring

What is basics of cement concrete ingredients and applications

Cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water is the primary ingredients of cement concrete mortar.


The primary function of cement ingredient is to bind the coarse aggregates together.

Cement also come in two types, Ordinary Portland cement & Portland pozzolana cement in shortly termed as OPC & PPC.

OPC cement generates more heat of during the hydration process so normally it is not suitable for the mass concreting in heat areas where there are chances to develop the cracks.

OPC cement has higher initial strength than PPC cement but lower in period of time.

OPC cement is widely used worldwide for the normal construction.

OPC is used where faster the construction require.

PPC is just addition of pozzolanic material to the OPC cement.

PPC generate the lower heat during the hydration process, so it can be used in mass concreting and less thermal cracking occur.

PPC is environment Friendly and cheaper then OPC cement.

There are many cement manufacturing plants in India such as UltraTech cement, Abuja cement, JK Lakshmi cement, Kamal cement etc.

Specific gravity of cement value is 3.15 to 3.19 and density is 1440 kg/m3.


Water is the one of the primary ingredient of concrete, If water ads with cement and fine aggregate (sand) it will form a slurry, and it will be used as mortar to bond the bricks or any other material on the structure, also can use as a finishing material.

When water is added with the cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate it will form concrete.

The amount of water in concrete also matters the most. It can be understand with water cement ratio and it is normally taken 0.40 to 0.60. Higher amount of water indicate the higher water cement ratio and it leads to lower the concrete strength. And lower water cement ration leads to higher concrete strength. water cement ratio can be measure by concrete slump test.

Fine aggregate:

Fine aggregate is used to fill the extra spots created through coarse aggregates. Sand and gravel used as fine aggregate. it is also stronger and cost effective.

Fine aggregate can be classify through sieve analysis. Material which pass through 75mm sieve is termed as fine aggregate. specific gravity of sand is around 2.65 and density is 1602 kg/m3.

Coarse aggregate:

Coarse aggregate is most important ingredient in concrete mixture. its provides the strength to the concrete and its proportional ratio is higher than any other ingredient. specific gravity of coarse aggregate is 2.5 to 3.0 average of 2.68 and density is 1525 to 2575 kg/m3.

At construction site we perform concrete cube test in UTM to determine the compressive strength of the concrete and slump cone test to determine the workability or water cement ratio.

In addition also many times we use additional material such as different type of admixtures to fulfil the requirements.

Post Author: hemantduva

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